International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge 2023-12-29T12:01:16+01:00 prof. Ing. Aleksandr Ključnikov, Ph.D. Open Journal Systems <div id="lipsum" style="text-align: justify;"> <div><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">An independent scientific periodical peer-reviewed journal <strong>International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge (IJEK),</strong> provides expert information on all aspects of entrepreneurship and business issues, including the results of domestic and international authors' basic and applied economic research. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge is </span>published by the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP (<a title="Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP" href=""></a>) in cooperation with the following partners: <ul> <li class="show">Pan-European University in Prague, Czech Republic</li> <li class="show">School of Business and Administration of the Polytechnic Institute of Setúbal, Portugal</li> <li class="show">Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communications, University of Zilina, Slovakia</li> <li class="show">Szent István University, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences, Hungary</li> <li class="show">University of Debrecen Faculty of Economics and Business, Hungary</li> </ul> </div> <div>Journal brings the expert opinions and results of the scientific studies related to entrepreneurship in a wide range of scientific fields, like <span style="line-height: 1.3em;">entrepreneurship, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">enterprise economics, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">business administration, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">innovation management in entrepreneurship, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">entrepreneurial finance, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">international trade and finance, </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">knowledge entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial knowledge, entrepreneurial business models, entrepreneurial behavior, entrepreneurial decision making, the social and ecological impact of entrepreneurship, start-ups, and incubation, success and failure in entrepreneurship, personality, local, regional and global aspects of entrepreneurship, evolution, and history of entrepreneurship, personalities, and profiles of entrepreneurs, and other entrepreneurial issues.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> <div> <div>IJEK considers the following types of articles:</div> <div> <ul> <li class="show"><strong>Research</strong> - reports of data from original research. Articles bring information about the outputs of the primary research of the author.</li> <li class="show"><strong>Case studies</strong>– the articles presenting the experience of applying the existing method or procedure and bringing relevant findings that could be valuable for other readers.</li> <li class="show"><strong>Review articles</strong> - the systematic review or comparative study of already known knowledge. A review should bring any new viewpoints and connections which could be valuable for the other readers.</li> </ul> </div> </div> <div>In some cases, we accept the papers that inform about the progress of the scientific projects financed by the European Union in the Other Issues section.</div> <div> </div> </div> <div>The first issue of the journal was published in December 2013. The journal is published two times a year in electronic form. The printed form of the journal was published from 2013 to 2020.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong style="line-height: 1.3em;">International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge</strong><strong style="line-height: 1.3em;"> (IJEK)</strong><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">maintains a standard double-blind peer-review process. The double-blind process means that the author does not know the reviewer’s identity, nor does the reviewer know the name of the author or other reviewers.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> <div>All articles are published <strong>free of charge</strong>. IJEK is an Open Access journal and does not charge readers or their institutions for access. </div> <div> </div> <div> <p><strong>Copyright</strong></p> <ul> <li class="show">The Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP (<a title="Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP" href=""></a>) is a publisher of the International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge.</li> <li class="show">Copyright belongs to the Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP (<a style="background-color: #ffffff; font-size: 0.875rem;" title="Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP" href=""></a><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">)</span>.</li> <li class="show">The publisher, Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP (<a title="Center for International Scientific Research of VŠO and VŠPP" href=""></a>), provides free access policy to the <span style="line-height: 1.3em;">International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge.</span></li> <li class="show">International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge is an open-access journal with <a style="background-color: #ffffff;" href="" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License</a> (CC BY-NC-ND) policy which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles or use them for any other lawful purpose without asking the publisher's or the author's prior permission. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.</li> </ul> </div> </div> <div><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge uses </span><strong style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Digital Object Identifier System (DOI).</strong></div> </div> THE INFLUENCE OF THE ASEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY PERCEPTION ON THE EXPORT INTENTIONS OF MICRO, SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES 2023-06-05T10:49:04+02:00 Irwan Iskandar Fiona Burhanuddin Hendrini Renolafitri <p>This research investigates the influence of the perception of the AEC on export intention owned by MSMEs. To pursue this purpose, this research used a quantitative research method. By implementing the survey design, 30 questionnaires were spread to 30 MSMEs for reliability tests and validity tests, and 170 questionnaires were spread to 170 MSMEs for data analysis, so there are 200 samples in total. After conducting data analysis by using SPSS Version 25, the research found that perception of the AEC significantly affects export intention. Nevertheless, the influence value of the perception of the AEC on export intention is low (8.5%). The other factors (91.5%) should be examined in depth in other research. It can be concluded that the perception of AEC has less significant influence in increasing export intention compared to other perceptions related to export. Hence, this research contributes practically to increasing the export intention of MSMEs in the AEC era. Although the value is low, MSMEs are recommended to have a good and comprehensive perception of AEC. However, a positive perception of other factors related to exports is required. Increasing these positive perceptions can be a good start for the government to foster exports conducted by MSMEs. Also, this research enriches the discussion of AEC as a subject in international studies and export intentions as a topic in entrepreneurship and business.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge MODERATING EFFECTS OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELECTRICITY SUPPLY RELIABILITY AND SME SUSTAINABILITY 2023-08-28T08:38:21+02:00 Felix Nkellefack Tapang Gabriel Nnoko Enongene <p>This paper aims to investigate the moderating effects of weather conditions on the relationship between electricity supply reliability and SME sustainability within the context of a developing country. The method used for analysis is a hierarchical regression with the use of SPSS AMOS 24 and slope analysis. SPSS 23 was used to test the assumptions for parametric analysis. Survey data was collected from a sample of 54 owners and managers of SMEs in the Fako Division of Cameroon. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between electricity supply reliability and SME sustainability and an insignificant positive relationship between weather conditions and SME sustainability. Furthermore, the results indicated that weather conditions moderate the relationship between electricity supply reliability and SME Sustainability in the Fako Division of Cameroon. The study found that the electricity utility company of Cameroon has the daunting task of ensuring a robust electricity supply network capable of withstanding harsh weather conditions to ensure regular electricity. The implications of the findings of the study are that prevailing weather has an influence on the reliability of electricity supply, which affects the operations of businesses. Furthermore, when the business operations of SMEs are affected, the economy of the country suffers significantly. The study recommends the involvement of the government and policymakers to institute measures to ensure the obligation of the electricity utility company to maintain minimal interruptions of electricity supply. This study’s contribution to the body of knowledge is embedded in developing a theoretical model that explains electricity supply reliability in Cameroon from a weather perspective.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge THE PERFORMANCE OF SMALL AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES IN YEMEN: A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY 2023-08-28T08:42:05+02:00 Mugaahed Abdu Kaid Saleh K. R. Manjunath <p>Due to the importance of the contribution of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) towards development worldwide, researchers in different contexts have investigated the development of SMEs and how economic development can be driven forward by supporting the SME sector. However, when it comes to lower-income economies, literature is scant in investigating the performance and the development of the contribution of SMEs towards economic development in lower-income economies. Hence, the aim of this article is to explore the extent and status of small and medium enterprises in Yemen as a lower-income economy and how their performance varies according to their characteristics. The article adopts cross-sectional quantitative methodologies, it relies on primary data collected conveniently from 400 owners and managers of manufacturing SMEs in Yemen. Descriptive analysis is used to explore the extent of SMEs' performance, and further, variance analysis using Independent Sample t-test and One Way ANOVA in order to explore the variance in the performance according to the variance of enterprise characteristics. The findings indicated a low extent of business performance among manufacturing SMEs, where the mean score of the overall extent ranges from 4.94 to 5.06 out of 7. Further, The result of running One Way ANOVA revealed that the scope of operation, age, and position of managers, in addition to owning a share of enterprises, significantly contribute to the variance in the business performance among manufacturing SMEs (P &lt; 0.05). These results can benefit the managers and owners of SMEs in Yemen and other similar economies by focusing on the extent of performance that their management can target. The implication of this research is summarized by discussing the performance of SMEs in lower-income economies to draw the attention of authors and scholars toward investigating the role and contribution of SMEs in economic development and welfare in lower-income economies.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge FUNDAMENTAL TENETS OF A RURAL-BASED ENTREPRENEURIAL UNIVERSITY: A SOUTH AFRICAN PERSPECTIVE 2023-10-22T10:23:14+02:00 Ishmael Obaeko Iwara <p>This study aims to identify the key initiatives that should characterize a rural-based higher education institution experimenting with the entrepreneurial university concept in South Africa. Using an exploratory case study design, primary data was collected from key stakeholders and analysed using Atlas-ti v8 software for thematic analysis and inferential statistics through IBM SPSS Amos v27. The results generated five fundamental tenets - entrepreneurial knowledge-building that resonates with practical skills, enterprise formation/commercialization, integration of indigenous entrepreneurship concepts, embedding resourceful stakeholders in the value chain, and engaged scholarship. The findings indicate that integrating indigenous concepts is aligned with the development of entrepreneurial knowledge-building and commercialization efforts; together, these tenets promise a successful rural-based entrepreneurial university in the study area, although stakeholder engagement and community partnership are also crucial components for success. In the context of this study, the concept of a rural-based entrepreneurial university is oriented towards inclusive economic development, social relevance, and mutual benefit, in contrast to profit-driven models seen in many entrepreneurial universities worldwide. These findings provide valuable insights for policy and research, paving the way for developing an index to guide rural-based universities in South Africa and beyond. It is recommended that the University of Venda, where this study was conducted, integrates the key findings into its strategic plans and utilizes them effectively to advance its entrepreneurial university aspirations.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF MARKETING COMMUNICATION MIX ON CUSTOMER SATISFACTION: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF SERVICE QUALITY DELIVERY 2023-10-01T19:38:04+02:00 Francis Kofi Sobre Frimpong Eric Kweku Hope Kofi Obeng Acheampong John Adu Jack Kwame Constance Phyllis Puttick <p>Customers are important stakeholders in the financial industry, and therefore management must place a high priority on their satisfaction. In this paper, we investigated the impact of marketing communication mix on customer satisfaction being mediated by service quality within the financial industry. Data was drawn from marketing and sales managers of financial institutions, non-financial institutions, and microfinance companies. A sample of 372 marketing and sales managers participated in this study from financial, non-financial, and microfinance institutions across the three business regions in Ghana. The study deployed the quantitative approach to achieve the objective set. Partial Least Square-Structural Equational Modeling version 3.3 was adopted in this study to analyze the data and its processing. Out of the eleven hypotheses formulated, seven of them were significant, while four were insignificant. According to the findings, firms with greater levels of marketing communication mix should employ this performance metric to attract and achieve high-quality customer satisfaction because customer satisfaction is critical to a company's success. To management, it set a ground for them as superintendents of businesses to tailor-make their products in line with the customers’ preferences and satisfaction. The limitations and future research directions are equally presented in the paper.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge ASSESSING THE ROLE OF FORMAL EDUCATION IN PROMOTING ENTREPRENEURSHIP 2023-09-01T09:50:55+02:00 Siddiq Abekah Osman Emmanuel Onuoha Emole Emmanuel Valentine Onu <p>Entrepreneurship has been an economic tool for many governments, especially those facing unemployment challenges. Ghana is facing high unemployment among its youth. Various administrations have implemented policies, including the National Youth Employment Program and the YouStart Program, to solve the unemployment challenge. These initiatives, however, have yet to solve unemployment. This study examines the role of formal education in fostering entrepreneurship. Data were collected using a quantitative approach through a structured questionnaire survey administered to 140 entrepreneurs in Ghana’s Sunyani Municipality. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 25. Correlational analysis was performed to examine the relationship between formal education and entrepreneurial performance. The study findings show that entrepreneurial-based education, not only formal education, helps graduates successfully establish and operate their own businesses. This contributes immensely to reducing unemployment. The results also reveal a weak positive correlation between formal education and entrepreneurial performance; however, the observed correlation was not statistically significant. Thus, formal education may influence entrepreneurial performance, but other variables may have a greater influence. The implications of these results highlight the importance of equipping students with entrepreneurial knowledge and skills to help them succeed as entrepreneurs. This can boost economic growth and lower unemployment. The study's implications go beyond Ghana, as many nations struggle with unemployment. Findings form this research would drive policy-making and educational restructuring efforts to promote entrepreneurship and reduce global unemployment. The authors recommended modifying the existing educational curriculum to include more emphasis on entrepreneurship education, spanning from primary to higher education levels.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge MODERATING ROLE OF THE MEDIA IN CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT AND PRODUCT ADOPTION 2023-11-08T16:33:54+01:00 Jacob Odei Addo Solomon Abekah Keelson <p>This study aims to extend knowledge by linking celebrity endorsement to the adoption theory by examining the role of the media as a moderating factor. This adds value to the present knowledge of celebrity endorsement literature and further explains the media's role in the relationship. The research adopted a quantitative methodology approach. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. Having taken 500 responses from respondents, including 30 Business Executives and 470 consumers. Both stratified and simple random sampling methods were used to select the business executives and consumers, respectively. The study used a test moderation approach for the analysis of the data. The outcome of the study has proved that for an endorsement to be effective, it depends on the vibrancy of the media used that are mostly used by the targeted audience. The results suggest that if the right medium and the appropriate vehicles are used to convey messages, then the effectiveness of endorsement promo is ensured. The study found that Celebrity endorsement could be used to speed up the acceptance of products and services successfully through media moderation. This creates awareness in the communities, which comes through social learning from each other. It was revealed that media could alter and make consumers adjust their behavior towards accepting such endorsed brands, which would result in adoption. The multiplicity of the media has made the social system more cohesive and interactive and has accelerated the time taken for the spread of endorsed product information, which has improved adopters’ access to information. Management should note that the media platform drives the circulation of product and service information because it creates community awareness. This adds value to the present knowledge of celebrity endorsement literature and further explains the media's role in the relationship. Celebrity endorsement and adoption models were applied to capture media influence on customers' behavior towards endorsed products and service acceptance.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge ENTREPRENEURIAL SOCIAL CAPITAL AND PERFORMANCE OF MICRO, SMALL, AND MEDIUM ENTERPRISES 2023-11-22T09:00:04+01:00 Elijah Muthee Rugami Maina <p>This study aimed to establish how entrepreneurial social capital influenced the Performance of MSMEs in Mombasa so as to gain an understanding of which strategies need to be formulated so as to stimulate the performance of the MSMEs. To achieve this objective, specific objectives included assessing the extent to which structural social capital, relational social capital, and, thirdly, cognitive and social capital influence the performance of MSMEs in Mombasa County. The research was guided by theories, including Social, signaling, and Resource-based view theories. The research adopted a descriptive design, with the population targeted being drawn from MSMEs operating within Mombasa County, from which a representative sample of 353 SMEs was selected as respondents. The respondents were selected using random sampling. Data that the researcher collected was collected with the aid of structured questionnaires, and finally, data was assessed, and inferences were made through descriptive statistics that guided the researcher to draw conclusions. The researcher found that dimensions of social capital, structural, relational, and cognitive, do significantly and positively influence the performance of MSMEs in Mombasa County. The study concluded that a positive correlation exists, implying that business management has to harness social capital correctly to improve business performance and poster upward growth. The study advances the empirical findings and theoretical foundations of social capital. In further research in this field, it would be useful to compare the influence of social capital on competitiveness indicators confirmed in firms’ financial reports by using a sample of enterprises with more transparent financial information.</p> 2023-12-29T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2023 International Journal of Entrepreneurial Knowledge